Anti-Corruption

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There are three anti-corruption entitites in Iraq: the Board of Supreme Audit, the Commission of Integrity (formerly known as the Commission on Public Integrity) and the Inspectors General. The Commission of Integrity and Inspectors General are creations of the Coalition Provisional Authority. The Commission of Integrity (under its previous name) is specifically referenced in Article 102 of the Constitution. The Joint Anti-Corruption Council attempts to coordinate the functions of these entities with the Ministry of Interior and Higher Judicial Council.

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Transparency is an important element in the fight against corruption. According to Article 129 of the Constitution, National Laws should be published in the Official Gazette and shall take effect on the date of their publication unless stipulated otherwise. This does happen – although prior to issue 4130 published on 20 July 2009, the Official Gazette was published only in Arabic and not in Kurdish.
In addition, under the Governorates not Organised into a Region Law No. 21 of 2008, Article 7(Twelfth) a local Official Gazette should be established in each Governorate and publish all decisions and orders issued by the Governorate Council. These local Gazettes are not being established although the Governorate Councils have now been operating for some time.

Accountability is another important element in the fight against corruption. Under CPA Order 55 public officials, including elected officials, must disclose their finances on an annual basis. In 2008, according to the CoI’s annual report, not one of the 275 members of the Council of Representatives, nor the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Ministers, President, Vice Presidents nor most of the cabinet disclosed their finances.